The department conducts research and design studies to develop methods, tools and technologies related to architecture, urban design, Physical planning and sanitary and drainage systems in buildings.

Functions

Conducts research, collect information and develop techniques and tools for design aids and planning control which deal with:

    Spatial requirements of the various activities and the spatial organization of building elements.
    The effects of the environmental physical fields and the psycho-physical requirements of man, with special reference to the Sudan.
    Building economics and the methods of cost reduction at the different stages of the process: design, construction maintenance and provision of services.
    Short and long-term structural planning covering all relevant aspects of physical, economical, social, transportation and corporate planning.
    Sanitation systems for Sudan: Low-cost alternatives to fully-sewered systems.

Go to department Projects

Current Research

    Design Study in affordable Housing -Medium Density Residential Compunds, 2010- up to date

           Study Coordinator: Dr. Zuhal Eltayeb Awad

    Design Study for Prototypes of Small Size Mosques, 2011 - up to date

         Study Coordinator: Arch. Maysoon Mustafa Badi

    Design Study for Prototypes of Schools (under planning)

          Arch. Ahmed Abo Albishr Atta Elmanan

    Evaulation of Ivestment Site & Services Projects in Greater Khartoum

         Dr. Zuahl Eltayeb Awad Diab

    Residential Density: Concept and Practice in Khartoum –Sudan

            Dr. Zuahl Eltayeb Awad Diab

    Mapping of Building Densities in Greater Khartoum

         Arch. Maysoon Mustafa Badi

Our services

The department provides a range of services related to architecture and physical planning including design, redesign, evaluation and specialized consultancy.

Recently introduced to the range of services we provide is the conduction of thermal, humidity and acoustic measurements supported by our newly established Environmental lab.

    Design and Planning Studies

    Evaluation of architectural designs

    Evaluation of existing Buildings

    Environmental performance analysis for existing buildings

    supervision of construction and maintenance projects

 

Publications


(Renovative housing policies to cope with - housing problems in Sudan). Proceedings of 39th World Congress on Housing Science-Changing needs, adaptive buildings ,smart cities Millan –Italy.
September 2013
Zuhal Awad
The traditional Site and services projects are one of the means followed by the government to solve housing problem in Sudan since Independence in 1956. The government sells the land with nominal cost and subsidizes the basic services, however the government failed to provide the basic services and many neighbourhoods are not developed. Recently, the government adopted a new approach – It alleviates the subsidy on the land and sells it with its real cost and directs this subsidy to the basic services in order to accelerate the incremental development of the projects. The objective of this paper is to assess the performance of the new approach. Six neighbourhoods are selected for the field survey. The paper analyses the existing situation of these neighbourhoods. The paper findings are: Some basic services e.g. water supply and electricity only is provided in all the selected neighbourhoods. Plot sizes vary from 300m2 to 1000m2. There is no effect of time span on the incremental development of the projects, all plots are sold but there is no development. The paper formulates some general recommendations for similar situations.
https://www.researchgate.net/…/324149726_AwadZE_OsmanARenov…

Residential Density: Concept and Practice in Khartoum –Sudan
December 2011
Zuhal Awad
This paper reviews the development of town planning theory in regard to residential density concept, studies the various definitions of residential density and their use in planning purposes, and examines the measurements of residential density control. It also outlines the effects of density on the urban form and on the behavior of residents. Within the Sudanese context, the paper reviews and evaluates residential density control in the previous development plans of metropolitan Khartoum: Doxiadis Master Plan 1960-1980, MEFIT Regional Plan 19751990 and Doxiadis Structure Plan 1990-2000 .
https://www.researchgate.net/…/334730271_Residential_Densit…

lمرشد خيارات السكن في العاصمة القومية (1999-2004

ملخص البحث : تستعرض هذه الورقة بلورة لخياارت السكن بالعاصمة القومية فى الفترة من2004 -1999لتحديد مواصفات السكن الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والحيزية والتقنية للمواطن السودانى وذلك بعمل خمسة تصنيفات لمقدار المدخر الشهرى بواسطة الاسرة (منخفض جدا/ منخفض/ وسط/ فوق الوسط/ عالى) وفترتين قصيرة وطويلة لاستمارر ذلك الادخار، وخمسة احجام للاسرة (صغيرة جدا/ صغيرة/ متوسطة/ كبيرة/ كبيرة جدا)، وثلاثه خياارت للارحة المساحية (ادنى/ متوسط/ مريح).ونتج عن ذلك للحصول على 150حالة وتم اعطاء كل حالة من تلك الحالات الفرصة للحصول على الخيار المناسب من بين اربعة مستويات تقنية بنائية (ثابت متقدم/ ثابت/ شبه ثابت/ غير ثابت)، وهى مستويات لها انعكاساتها على ثمانية مكونات فرعية (اساسات/ حوامل أرسية/ سقوفات/ ابواب وشبابيك/ ارضيات/ انهاء وتشطيب/ تركيبات صحية/ تركيبات كهربائية). وأمكن من خلال ذلك معرفة امكانية الحصول علي المأوي المناسب اقتصاديا واجتماعيا وبينيا وخدميا وتقنيا وجماليا.
https://www.researchgate.net/…/324149732_mrshd_khyarat_als

 

Sustainability Evaluation for Low-Cost Housing Projects With special reference to Khartoum State Fund for Housing and Development projects
January 2016
Zuhal Awad Z. O. Gaafer
Sustainability Evaluation for Low-Cost Housing Projects With special reference to Khartoum State Fund for Housing and Development projects Z. E. Awad and Z. O. Gaafer Abstract Low- cost housing projects in developing countries can be considered a burden more than an investment for governments, housing projects should be more than a roof over head. It is a community and a source of social and economic development. Because of the lack of adequate assessment criteria for sustainable development in low-cost housing projects, a poor living environment and lack of public participation in neighborhood construction and development has occurred. This paper examines the main principles of urban sustainability that characterize “sustainable neighborhoods” to evaluate some of the low-cost housing projects in Sudan. The paper selects a set of urban parameters to assess the current situation of these projects in terms of urban morphology, housing typology, urban mobility, employment and income generation and sustainable building technologies. The paper recommended accessible locations for lowcost housing projects, and reserve land especially for that use, introduction of mixed land -use within the new projects and providing new housing types that may improve the neighborhoods environment. Ensure that there is a social mixture of inhabitant, encourage families to use part of their houses for other uses such as commercial to improve family income, keep inhabitants near their homes and make the neighborhood mixed-use. Connect housing with work and introduce new work sites such as farms and light industry near to remote housing projects and encourage provision .
https://www.researchgate.net/…/317195471_Sustainability_Eva…

 

تخطيط الخدمات الاجتماعية في بعض المجاورات السكنية (مشاريع الموقع و اللخدمات الاستثمارية) زحل الطيب عوض _آمنة عثمان احمد .
September 2017
Abstract The main objective of this paper is to study the planning of social services in some neighborhoods that are planned according to investment site and services approach. The government adopted this new approach to alleviate the subsidy on the land and sells it with its real cost and directs this subsidy to the basic services. Five neighborhoods are selected for the field survey, geographically distributed in the three towns: in Khartoum town- Seba and Alawda, in Khartoum North Alnakheel and Nebta and in Omdurman Elrehan. The paper analyzed the existing situation of planning of social services and compared it with the international standards. The paper concluded that some of these services e.g. educational are adequate in numbers but its areas are below standards also all the neighborhoods have health centers although the inhabitants are not sufficient except in Elrehan. The paper recommended that areas of social services must be compatible with international standards and provide corner shops and mosques in some neighborhoods .
https://www.researchgate.net/…/324149667_tkhtyt_alkhdmat_al…

 

Examining Sustainable Mobility in Low-cost Neighborhoods in Khartoum-Sudan
July 2018

Zuhal Awad Z. O. Gaafer
By the beginning of the current century the state of Khartoum-Sudan starts giving direct support to low- income families by providing built houses to solve housing problem. The problem is that these neighborhoods lack proper standards of sustainable mobility. Five neighborhoods are selected as case studies. The research has two methodological phases: a comparison between neighbourhoods by criteria (geospatial data) describing their physical characteristics and field observation.The current situation of the neighborhoods were analyzed and the outcomes were compared with the UN Habitat model of sustainable neighborhood focusing on five parameters :location, proximity to potential work areas ,urban mobility street network characteristics and walkability .The research found that all the selected neighborhoods are accessible by private transportation (mini buses and cars) and within neighborhoods by Ructions . They have clear road hierarchy with no special roads dedicated for bicycles or pedestrians. Car ownership's ranging from 20 – 30 %. and there are no sufficient parking spaces. The research recommended adding sidewalks, parking spaces and green routs that can help identifying roads and improving their usability and giving priority to pedestrians, cyclists, and public transport. The research encouraged shared-use mobility services such as car sharing.
https://www.researchgate.net/…/332262433_Examining_Sustaina…

 

Evaluating Neighborhoods Developed Open Spaces in Khartoum-Sudan
December 2018
Zuhal Awad
The research reported in this paper, evaluated development of open areas in neighborhoods. The research was performed in the new neighborhoods in Khartoum town (Al Riyadh (1972), Nasr Extension (1972) and Al Mujahedeen (1988), compared to older neighborhoods (Khartoum-2 (1950), Al Diyum (1953), and Alamarat (1958)). The research aimed to study open spaces in these neighborhoods. Compared with characteristics of the selected neighborhoods, classified developed open spaces and evaluated the performance of each typology. The research promoted measurable development indicators such as availability, accessibility, safety and management. Then apply these indicators to analyze developed open spaces. The results confirmed a lack of a comprehensive development programs. The developed open spaces are 35 with total area of 154,050 m 2 which represent only 27.6 % of the total number of open spaces. The research found that old neighborhoods have higher index of sufficiency value than new neighborhoods e.g. Khartoum (2) (8.9) compared to Al-Mujahdeen (5.2). Also, first class residential areas have higher index value than third class areas e.g. Khartoum-2 (8.9) compared to Al-Diyum (7.7). The successful types of developed open spaces of the surveyed neighborhoods are Recreational open spaces and Community centers. Most of them are managed by community groups (public participation).
https://www.researchgate.net/…/329442542_Evaluating_Neighbo…

 

Sustainable Urban Growth of Neighborhoods-A Case Study of Alryad-Khartoum
January 2019
Zuhal Awad
Alryad neighborhood is located in Khartoum town– the administrative center of the Capital of Sudan. The neighborhood is one of the high-income residential areas. It was planned and developed in 1972 with large plots (875-600 m2 ), wide crossing roads and balanced environment. Recently the area shifted to more compact urban form of high density, it is transformed towards mixed-use integrated development with more intensive use of land and less-residential uses. This transformation affected the quality of the neighborhood and the inter-related features of the built environment. The research problem focused on the challenges of transformation that associated with compact neighborhood and the created multiple urban problems e.g. stress of essential services (water supply, electricity and drainage), congestion of streets and demand for parking. The study analyzed the current situation of the neighborhood compared to the five principles of sustainable neighborhood prepared by UN Habitat. The study found that the process of change of the neighborhood was originated by external forces due to the declining economic situation of the whole country. Non-residential uses have taken place uncontrolled, unregulated and haphazardly that led to damage the residential environment and deficiency in infrastructure. The quality of urban life on levels of privacy was reduced, the neighborhood changed gradually to be a central business district. The results showed that Alryad is not fully sustainable. The recommendation is to guide the possible growth patterns through building and planning codes that accommodate transformations and provide new solutions which allow for promoting the neighborhood sustainable development.
https://www.researchgate.net/…/333554695_Sustainable_Urban_…

 

Comparing Urban Sustainability in Two Neighborhoods in Khartoum-Sudan
April 2019

Zuhal Awad
This paper examined the main design concepts of urban sustainability that characterize traditional neighborhood-Abrouf compared to a new neighborhood-Elandalus 17. The paper tried to answer the main question: which is more sustainable the urban form of spontaneous planning pattern of Abrouf or the contemporary grid iron pattern of Elandalus 17. The assessment was based on empirical findings of fieldwork. The identified design concepts are: Accessibility, Density, Diversity, Mixed land use, Compactness, urban mobility, and Greening. Current situation of the two neighborhoods was analyzed and the research found some design concepts of sustainability e.g. Diversity in both cases. Abrouf neighborhood has a compact urban form with low residential density and different housing typologies, but there is no enough space for streets and open spaces. Elandalus 17 neighborhood has high residential density and adequate space for streets and open spaces, but it lacks good transport connectivity with other parts of Khartoum. The paper recommended some interventions to enhance sustainability in both neighborhoods such as: encourage sustainable mobility and give priority to pedestrians, cyclists, and public transport, encourage families to be productive by using part of their houses to generate income and provide sustainable basic infrastructures especially solar energy as there is a good opportunity to use it in Sudan .
https://www.researchgate.net/…/332550014_Comparing_Urban_Su…

 

Sustainable low-cost housing in Sudan between Theory and Practice
October 2019
Zuhal Awad
The Sudanese housing policies encompass two main types of programs. The first one addresses the needs of all sectors of the population for the provision of plots through site and services schemes. The second type provides small built core units (Incremental housing) for the low-income groups. The aim of the paper is to review the provision of sustainable low-income housing in research and practice. The research selected some low-cost housing studies to represent research efforts and some low-cost housing constructed projects to represent the practice, these projects were constructed in different periods of time e.g. New Duim project _1949, El shabiya project_1963, Al Iskan Project _1975 and state fund projects _2001. The analysis focused on three parameters: the scope of the project, the design of the core unit and the construction including building materials and technologies, these parameters are discussed comparing research efforts and the practice. The research found that studies presented proposals for housing clusters provided good ventilation and simple design of the plots with direct access for cars and savings on sewage network. Old constructed projects had comprehensive approach including socio-_economic surveys of the intended inhabitants, while new constructed projects put more emphasis on quantities of built units than on quality of housing. Research studies proposed cheap building materials and technologies which is more sustainable than the expensive imported materials used in new constructed projects. The research identified the introduction of mixed housing of different income levels in new constructed projects that guaranteed social sustainability.
https://www.researchgate.net/…/336375363_Sustainable_low-co…

 

Sustainability Evaluation for Low-Cost Housing Projects With special reference to Khartoum State Fund for Housing and Development projects
January 2016

Zuhal Awad Z. O. Gaafer
Low- cost housing projects in developing countries can be considered a burden more than an investment for governments, housing projects should be more than a roof over head. It is a community and a source of social and economic development. Because of the lack of adequate assessment criteria for sustainable development in low-cost housing projects, a poor living environment and lack of public participation in neighborhood construction and development has occurred. This paper examines the main principles of urban sustainability that characterize “sustainable neighborhoods” to evaluate some of the low-cost housing projects in Sudan. The paper selects a set of urban parameters to assess the current situation of these projects in terms of urban morphology, housing typology, urban mobility, employment and income generation and sustainable building technologies. The paper recommended accessible locations for lowcost housing projects, and reserve land especially for that use, introduction of mixed land -use within the new projects and providing new housing types that may improve the neighborhoods environment. Ensure that there is a social mixture of inhabitant, encourage families to use part of their houses for other uses such as commercial to improve family income, keep inhabitants near their homes and make the neighborhood mixed-use. Connect housing with work and introduce new work sites such as farms and light industry near to remote housing projects and encourage provision
https://www.researchgate.net/…/317195471_Sustainability_Eva…

THE OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN OLD NEIGHBORHOODS A CASE STUDY OF ABUROUF NEIGHBORHOOD - SUDAN
https://www.researchgate.net/…/324149458_The_Opportunities_…

 

 

Our Team

Arch. Zuhal Eltayeb Awad

Assistant professor
   

Arch. Ahmed Abo Elbishr Atta Elmanan

Teaching Assistant

   

Arch. Mudathir Mustafa

Architect, Head Technician

   

Arch. Mohammed Eltayeb

Architect

 

Eng. Abdalla Faisal

Lab Technician

 Contact Us
Address: Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) University of Khartoum (U. of K.) -  Eljama'a Avenue
Postal Adress: P.O. Box 321  Khartoum
Tel: +249 183 781412
Fax: +249 183 779046
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